Tuesday, November 6, 2012

Supernova dan Nebula

Apa itu Supernova? Apa itu Nebula???
Kebetulan sekali di post kali ini akan membahas tentang apa itu Supernova dan nebula. hehehe. ane lagi ga ada kerjaan soalnya. daripada buang-buang waktu, jadi ya, langsung saja.



Apa itu Supernova?


Supernova
Supernova terjadi ketika sebuah bintang runtuh karena mulai terbakar habis, kemudian tiba-tiba meledak, menghasilkan energi cahaya yang besar, dan sisanya adalah inti neutron yang kecil, yang merupakan substansi paling berat di alam semesta.

Kadang-kadang sebuah bintang muncul dilangit secara tiba-tiba. Hal ini terjadi karena ada sepasang bintang yang saling mengelilingi. Pasangan ini disebut biner, dan biasanya salah satunya berukuran besar disebut bintang merah raksasa, mengorbit dengan sebuah bintang yang kecil, lebih panas. Nova (ledakan bintang) terjadi ketika gas dari merah raksasa tertarik ke arah bintang yang lebih kecil, ketika panas menyebabkan ledakan dahsyat dan memancarkan cahaya dalam jumlah yang besar.



Apa itu Nebula?


Nebula
Nebula adalah awan dari gas panas berwarna putih dan material padat berukuran amat besar yang berputar di ruang antarbintang, menjadi semakin kecil dan semakin panas sepanjang waktu. Ketika awan gas menjadi lebih kecil, awan ini melemparkan cincin gas. Masing-masing cincin ini mengalami kondensasi untuk menjadi bintang.

Berdasarkan pada tampilannya, Nebula dapat dibagi menjadi dua kelas berbeda : Nebula gelap dan nebula terang.
Nebula Gelap terlihat sebagai noktah hitam dengan bentuk tidak teratur di langit dan menghalangi cahaya dari bintang yang terletak dibelakangnya.
Nebula terang terlihat seperti permukaan yang bercahaya redup; nebula ini mungkin memancarkan cahayanya sendiri atau memantulkan cahaya dari bintang yang ada di dekatnya.



Yak, sekian dulu post hari ini, maaf atas penjelasan yang singkat, semoga dapat dimengerti. ehehehe...

Monday, November 5, 2012

Mesin Waktu

Kita semua pasti pernah berfikir, 'mesin waktu itu bener ada atau tidak?'

nah, pada kesempatan kali ini di post ini, kita bakal menguak sedikit tentang mesin waktu.

Percobaan mesin waktu, pernah dilakukan pada tahun 1995. oleh Badan Riset Nuklir Eropa (CERN). Merupakan project terbesar yang pernah dilakukan oleh Manusia, dengan menggunakan peralatan paling rumit di dunia, serta memakan biaya lebih dari USD 10 Miliar dengan waktu penyelesaian lebih dari 14 tahun. Terletak 91 meter dibawah perbatasan Franco-Swiss dekat Geneva, Switzerland, mesin yg berbentuk terowongan sepanjang 27 kilometer ini dibangun oleh 10000 ilmuwan dan insinyur, dari lebih 100 negara, serta didukung oleh ratusan universitas dan laboratorium.

Tapi, hal tersebut masih belum membuktikan bahwa manusia dapat menjelajahi waktu. kenapa? mari kita bahas tentang Teori mesin waktu terlebih dahulu. ^_^

Teori Mesin Waktu

Sebelum lanjut ke teori mesin waktu yang ribet banget, kita akan bahas dulu tentang Miskonsepi tentang ruang dan waktu

Miskonsepi ruang dan waktu

Apakah pendapatmu tentang waktu?

"waktu selalu berjalan dengan kecepatan yang sama dimana2 di seluruh alam semesta ini"

Dan apakah pendapatmu tentang ruang?

"ruang ya begitu saja, 3 dimensil dan statis"

Jika pendapatmu kurang lebih sama dengan jawaban diatas, maka kamu salah. Ternyata ruang dan waktu itu sangat relatif. bisa berubah-ubah tergantung keadaannya. Buktinya?

- Gravitasi

Gravitasi bukan cuma sesuatu yang menarik kamu ke bumi. Gravitasi juga

Pernah nonton filmnya Jet Lee, "The One"?
Disana diceritakan, bahwa si Jet Lee ini punya banyak duplikat dirinya di semesta-semesta lain. Di semesta A dia jadi polisi, di semesta B dia jadi beach boy, dll. Ilmuwan percaya ini sangat mungkin terjadi.

Kenapa? inget partikel yang bisa menjadi 2 tadi? Bila partikel2 yang menyusun alam semesta ini bisa bercabang menjadi 2 sekaligus. Mungkin saja seluruh semesta kita ini bisa bercabang-cabang, bila ada cabang bagi kemungkinan yang akan terjadi.

Misalkan :
Beckham nendang freekick, jadi kemungkinannya : meleset ke kiri, meleset ke kanan, kena pager betis ditepis, ditangkep, goal, bisa juga dia tiba2 mati jantungan, dsb. Jumlah kemungkinannya tak terbatas, maka jika sebuah objek dihadapkan kepada kemungkinan yang banyak ini, maka semesta akan bercabang-cabang mengikuti kemungkinan-kemungkinan yang dapat terjadi.

Memang kedengerannya gila, tapi bila partikel bisa melakukannya, maka seluruh semesta yang terdiri dari partikel ini dapat melakukannya, khan?!

Balik lagi ke pertanyaan semula, apa yang terjadi kalo kamu membunuh kakek kamu sebelum dia ngelahirin bapak kamu? Inget multiverse tadi? Ini membuktikan kalo kamu kembali ke masa lalu dan mangubah sejarah. Apa yang sudah terjadi di semesta kamu gak akan berubah, kamu gak bakalan hilang, karena itu hanya akan membuat semesta baru, yang berbeda dengan semesta kamu sebelumnya.merupakan pembengkokkan ruang dan waktu yang dilakukan oleh benda bermassa, dan semakin besar massa suatu benda, semakin besar pula pembengkokkan ruang waktu yang dilakukannya.

- Muon

Muon adalah partikel yang hanya hidup selama 2/1 juta detik. Muon terbentuk saat cosmic ray terbentur atmosfir atas bumi. Karena Muon hidup hanya selama 2/1 juta detik, harusnya mereka hanya mampu berjalan sekitar beberapa ratus meter sebelum lenyap. Tapi kenyataanya, banyak Muon ditemukan di permukaan bumi.

Kenapa bisa begitu??
Karena kecepatan mempengaruhi waktu. Semakin cepat suatu benda bergerak, semakin lambat waktu berjalan baginya. Ini yang disebut dengan dilasi waktu. Inilah kenapa si Muon yang hidup selama 2/1 juta sekon mampu sampai ke permukaan bumi, karena 2/1 juta sekon bagi dia = beberapa sekon bagi kita.

Pergi ke masa depan

Bagaimana cara pergi ke masa depan?

- Dengan kecepatan

Inget sama si Muon? Dia mampu ‘pergi ke masa depan’, karena ia memiliki kecepatan yang luar biasa.

Jadi Teorinya Begini :
"Kita bergerak dengan kecepatan mendekati kecepatan cahaya, supaya waktu berjalan lebih lambat bagi kita, dan begitu kita kembali ke kecepatan normal, maka bumi sudah futuristik githu".

Hanya saja ada masalah mengenai ini :
Semakin cepat suatu benda bermassa bergerak, semakin berat dirinya. Dan semakin berat sesuatu, semakin besar tenaga yang diperlukan untuk menggerakkanya. Maka, untuk menggerakkan kita mendekati kecepatan cahaya, diperlukan energi yang luar biasa besar, dan seluruh energi di bumi pun gak bakalan cukup.

- Dengan Gravitasi

Diatas udah dijelasin tentang pengaruh gravitasi terhadap ruang, bukan terhadap waktu. Tapi, karena ruang dan waktu terikat erat, maka perubahan di ruang juga berpengaruh terhadap waktu. Maka, semakin besar suatu daerah terbengkokkan ruangnya, waktunya akan berjalan semakin lamban.

Contoh :
Karena semakin dekat kamu ke inti bumi, semakin besar pula gravitasinya, dan sebaliknya. Waktu bagi orang yang ada di permukaan bumi, lebih lambat bagi orang yang ada di lantai 100 gedung bertingkat. (Walaupun perbedaan jarak waktunya sangat kecil sekali).

Jadi Teorinya Begini :
"Kita pergi ke tempat yang massanya lebih besar dari bumi, supaya waktu berjalan lambat bagi kita dan cepet bagi bumi, sehingga pas kita balik ke bumi, bumi sudah futusitik."

Ok, apa coba benda yg massanya jauh lebih gede dari bumi, yang memungkinkan perjalanan waktu??? "Black Hole". Black Hole adalah benda yg bermassa luar biasa dan sangat padat, tentu saja gravitasinya gila-gilaan. Dan gravitasi yang gila, tentu saja bakal memperlambat waktu dengan gila. (bahkan di pusat black hole/singularitas, waktu berhenti sangking kuatnya gravitasinya).

Tapi, seperti menjelajahi waktu dengan kecepatan, hal ini juga punya masalah. Masalah yang sangat besar : Kamu Bakal Mati ! Begitu kamu melewati event horizon, gak ada cara bagi kamu untuk keluar, maka kamu bakal terhisap ke sigularitas, dan dihancurkan sampai ketiadaan.

- Time Paradox
Gimana kalo kita udah punya mesin waktu yang benar-benar bekerja? Apakah menggunakannya bakal membuat kekacauan di ruang waktu?

Karena semua hal yg kita lihat ini terbuat dari atom, maka mendingan kita liat dulu apa yg terjadi di dunia atom. Sebenernya, partikel2 atom itu penjelajah waktu secara alami. Ini adalah percobaan 2 celah, sebuah partikel (elektron) ditembakan melalui sebuah celah, lalu dari celah tersebut dibuat lagi 2 celah dibelakangnya.

Harusnya khan partikel memilih salah satu dari 2 celah tersebut untuk dilalui? Tapi anehnya nggak! Ternyata 1 partikel dapat melalui 2 celah!! Ini berarti sebuah partikel dapat berada di 2 tempat sekaligus!? Dan karena kita terdiri dari partikel, kita mungkin juga bisa berada di 2 tempat secara bersamaan. Hal ini membuat ilmuwan memikirkan tentang teori gila lainnya, "Multiverse".

- Multiverse

Pernah nonton filmnya Jet Lee, "The One"?
Disana diceritakan, bahwa si Jet Lee ini punya banyak duplikat dirinya di semesta-semesta lain. Di semesta A dia jadi polisi, di semesta B dia jadi beach boy, dll. Ilmuwan percaya ini sangat mungkin terjadi.

Kenapa? inget partikel yang bisa menjadi 2 tadi? Bila partikel2 yang menyusun alam semesta ini bisa bercabang menjadi 2 sekaligus. Mungkin saja seluruh semesta kita ini bisa bercabang-cabang, bila ada cabang bagi kemungkinan yang akan terjadi.

Misalkan :
Beckham nendang freekick, jadi kemungkinannya : meleset ke kiri, meleset ke kanan, kena pager betis ditepis, ditangkep, goal, bisa juga dia tiba2 mati jantungan, dsb. Jumlah kemungkinannya tak terbatas, maka jika sebuah objek dihadapkan kepada kemungkinan yang banyak ini, maka semesta akan bercabang-cabang mengikuti kemungkinan-kemungkinan yang dapat terjadi.

Memang kedengerannya gila, tapi bila partikel bisa melakukannya, maka seluruh semesta yang terdiri dari partikel ini dapat melakukannya, khan?!

Balik lagi ke pertanyaan semula, apa yang terjadi kalo kamu membunuh kakek kamu sebelum dia ngelahirin bapak kamu? Inget multiverse tadi? Ini membuktikan kalo kamu kembali ke masa lalu dan mangubah sejarah. Apa yang sudah terjadi di semesta kamu gak akan berubah, kamu gak bakalan hilang, karena itu hanya akan membuat semesta baru, yang berbeda dengan semesta kamu sebelumnya.

Saturday, November 3, 2012

Zombi. . .

Yah, sekali-sekali lah, nge-post pake bahasa indonesia... hahaha...

Post kali ini, tentang membahas zombi. :D
Nah, tadi kn, ane habis nonton film di Nat Geo channel (national geographic channel) tentang fakta di balik zombi. yah, karena ngomongnya cepet banget, jadi cuma bisa ngerti sebagian besar aja...




Zombi, adalah sosok fiksi tentang mayat hidup yang banyak dikenal melalui film-film. Namun, bagi orang Haiti, zombi merupakan sosok yang nyata, karena dalam budaya mereka, yakni, voodo, mereka dapat menciptakan zombi atau menghidupkan orang yang telah mati.

Di Haiti sendiri ada kepercayaan bahwa zombie merupakan orang mati yang dihidupkan kembali dan kadang dikendalikan dengan maksud-maksud tertentu oleh ahli voodoo. Seorang ahli voodoo disebut sebagai bokor atau houngan dalam bahasa setempat.

Kadang kala proses mengubah seseorang menjadi zombie dilakukan dengan niat memberikan hukuman. Pasalnya hal tersebut bisa memicu ketakutan pada mereka yang percaya dirinya tetap bisa diperbudak bahkan setelah mati. Sementara itu, seringkali dikatakan bahwa zombie digunakan sebagai budak pekerja di peternakan dan perkebunan tebu.

Pada 1980-an, pernah terjadi seorang yang mentalnya kurang sehat mengklaim telah disandera dan dijadikan zombie selama dua dekade. Walaupun begitu, pria ini tidak sanggup menunjukkan lokasi kerjanya kepada para penyidik. Cerita ini pun akhirnya tidak pernah diverifikasi.

Asumsi bahwa zombie merupakan monster dari film fiksi dipertanyakan pada 1980 ketika seorang ilmuwan bernama Wade Davis mengklaim telah menemukan bubuk yang bisa menciptakan zombie. Hal ini sekaligus menjadi landasan ilmiah tentang misteri zombie.



zombie yang ada di film, bener seperti itu atau tidak?




tentu saja tidak.

Kalau di film-film gitu kan, biasanya kalau orang terinfeksi zombi gitu, pas gigit manusia, manusia yang digigit langsung jadi zombi. Ahli mengatakan bahwa hal itu tidak mungkin. Karena perkembangan virus tak ada yang secepat itu. paling cepat, 1 - 3 hari.

Di Amerika pernah terjadi, seseorang yang disangka telah meninggal dan telah dikuburkan, beberapa bulan kemudian ditemukan hidup dan sehat walafiat. keluarga nya lalu memanggil psikiater untuk membuktikan orang tersebut benar orang yang meninggal waktu itu atau bukan. Psikiater tersebut menanyakan seperangkat pertanyaan pada orang tersebut, dan setelah selesai, psikiater tersebut keluar dengan jawaban yang mengagetkan.

Psikiater tersebut mengatakan bahwa orang tersebut terbukti benar orang yang meninggal waktu itu. tetapi memang sulit dipercaya, orang yang telah meninggal, bisa hidup kembali. apakah mungkin dokter yang salah memeriksa? jawabannya adalah tidak.

Dalam ilmu voodoo, ada sebuah racun yang dibuat dari mayat manusia dan ikan buntal yang paling beracun didunia. jika racun itu diminum, akan memberikan dampak mati rasa total pada peminumnya, tetapi tetap sadar hingga menjelang kematian. setelah orang itu meninggal, lalu ia dihidupkan kembali oleh seorang yang disebut bokor.



Memang itu semua sulit dipercaya, tapi yah, apa yang dijelaskan tadi mungkin benar, mungkin juga salah.

Kesimpulannya, zombi yang kalian lihat di film, bukan zombi yang asli...

Sunday, September 23, 2012

macromedia animation

video

i uploaded on .wmv file because i add a music to the video :D hope you enjoy it! :D don't forget to leave your comment...

Sunday, August 19, 2012

Cheetah

Painted cheetah picture
The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large-sized feline (family Felidae, subfamily Felinae) inhabiting most of Africa and parts of the Middle East. It is the only extant member of the genus Acinonyx. The cheetah achieves by far the fastest land speed of any living animal—between 112 and 120 km/h. in short bursts covering distances up to 500 m, and has the ability to accelerate from 0 to over 100 km/h in three seconds!!! 


Cheetah run
When the moment is right a cheetah will sprint after its quarry and attempt to knock it down. Such chases cost the hunter a tremendous amount of energy and are usually over in less than a minute. If successful, the cheetah will often drag its kill to a shady hiding place to protect it from opportunistic animals that sometimes steal a kill before the cheetah can eat. Cheetahs need only drink once every three to four days. Female cheetahs typically have a litter of three cubs and live with them for one and a half to two years. Young cubs spend their first year learning from their mother and practicing hunting techniques with playful games. Male cheetahs live alone or in small groups, often with their littermates. a normal cheetah can live for about 10 to 12 years.



Cheetah's skull
The cheetah's chest is deep and its waist is narrow. The coarse, short fur of the cheetah is tan with round black spots measuring from 2 to 3 cm (0.79 to 1.2 in) across, affording it some camouflage while hunting. There are no spots on its white underside, but the tail has spots, which merge to form four to six dark rings at the end. The tail usually ends in a bushy white tuft. The cheetah has a small head with high-set eyes. Black "tear marks" running from the corner of its eyes down the sides of the nose to its mouth keep sunlight out of its eyes and aid in hunting and seeing long distances. Although it can reach high speeds, its body cannot stand long distance running, because it is more suited to short bursts of speed.


King Cheetah

King cheetah
The king cheetah is a rare mutation of cheetah characterized by a distinct fur pattern. It was first noted in what was then Southern Rhodesia (modern-day Zimbabwe) in 1926. Its species status was resolved in 1981 when king cheetahs were born at the De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre in South Africa. In May 1981, two spotted sisters gave birth there and each litter contained one king cheetah.
normal cheetah
Normal CheetahThe sisters had both mated with a wild-caught male from the Transvaal area (where king cheetahs had been recorded). Further king cheetahs were later born at the Centre. It has been known to exist in Zimbabwe, Botswana and in the northern part of South Africa's Transvaal province. A recessive gene must be inherited from both parents for this pattern to appear, which is one reason why it is so rare.
there are no other different except the skin between the king cheetah and the normal cheetah.

Friday, August 17, 2012

5 Mysteries that never been solved

From the ancient Egypt to the afterlife, these are 5 mysteries never be solved. WE CONSIDER a great deal of paranormal phenomena and mysteries of the unexplained here. There are many such mysteries that have puzzled us all. Through ongoing research, however, we are likely one day to understand many of them. Quite conceivably we will understand how telepathy and precognition work. Bigfoot could be captured next year. We might even discover an explanation for ghost and haunting phenomena. But there are some enduring mysteries to which we may never get the answers :


- How the pyramids were built

Pyramids
The astonishing pyramids of Giza, Egypt stand as monuments of ancient man's remarkable engineering skills. Yet, no one is sure exactly how they were built. Their method of construction has been one of the most enduring mysteries of human achievement. There is no conclusive evidence in ancient Egyptian writing or carvings that tell us how they were built. This lack of record has spawned dozens of theories, from the practical to the fantastic.

Why we may never know. We have no definitive evidence. The secret of the pyramids may be lost to history.

The only way we'll know is…. The debate about how the great Egyptian pyramids were built will rage indefinitely. The only way the mystery will be solved is if some ancient writing or artifact from the period of their construction is unearthed that unambiguously depicts the method of building.


- The Rosewell UFO Case


UFO
Something crashed on William "Mac" Brazel's ranch in June or July of 1947. Exactly what it was is still unknown for sure. Many UFO researchers are fairly certain that it was a flying saucer - a vehicle piloted by extraterrestrials. The U.S. military insists it wasn't; it was something of theirs.

UFO
Why we may never know. The Roswell incident has become so mired in rumor, questionable "eyewitnesses," hyperbole, deception, and the military's multiple and contradictory explanations that we may never know the truth. The problem is, no hard evidence has yet been presented. There is intriguing circumstantial evidence and some compelling anecdotal evidence, not the least of which is the Army's initial claim that it was indeed a flying saucer.

The only way we'll know is…. At this point, the only resolution to the mystery will probably have to come from the US military. They have come up with so many stories about Roswell so far that it's hard to believe them… but if they can produce the wreckage of the saucer and the alien bodies, we'll know for sure.



- The Philadelphia Experiment

Before the experiment starts
The Philadelphia Experiment is like the Roswell incident in that it may have been a secret military operation that because of its secrecy has generated a whole shipload of conspiracy theories, contradictory stories and outrageous tall tales. According to the legend, if we can call it that, in 1943 the US Navy conducted an experiment that involved the destroyer USS Eldridge. The secret experiment wired the Eldridge with powerful electromagnetic equipment that when switched on would render the ship invisible. Not just invisible to radar, like a stealth ship, but invisible to sight. The theory was that the strong electromagnetism would bend light around the ship, effectively making it disappear.

few second before the ship dissapear
Why we may never know. There is far less credible evidence - circumstantial, anecdotal or otherwise - for the most fanciful claims about the Philadelphia Experiment than there is for the Roswell incident. There are few witnesses who claim the stories are true, but then the conspiracy theorists say that the rest of the witnesses have been threatened or brainwashed to conceal the truth. And, of course, the Navy is just covering it up. Like most such cases, you can't prove that it didn't happen, even though there's virtually no evidence that it did.

The only way we'll know is…. Only full disclosure by the US Navy will put the matter to rest. But if they haven't done so sixty years after the fact, will they ever?


- Crop Circles


Crop circles (seen from afar)
I suspect that most crop glyphs are probably manmade. The so-called circlemakers have demonstrated quite convincingly that they can stomp down amazingly intricate patterns in crop fields using simple tools and detailed planning. So people can make them. Even long-time crop circle researcher Colin Andrews admitted that he believes 80 percent of crop circles are manmade.

What about that nagging 20 percent, however? There are qualities of some crop glyphs that seem to defy the manmade explanation:

  • Huge, complicated glyphs are formed in an impossibly short span of time.
  • Enigmatic changes in the plants, which cannot be accounted for simply by stomping them down, including: elongated and blown-out nodes; increased plant size and crop yield; cellular changes; and altered seeds.
  • Other strange effects have been reported within "genuine" crop circles, including: effects on equipment; unusual electromagnetic measurements; unexplained sounds; drying out and changes to the soil; dizziness and other physiological effects claimed by researchers.
Crop circles
Why we may never know. Human circlemakers can certainly prove that they have created glyphs that they have been involved with, if they wanted to. But can they prove that they have created all of them? If the Earth or aliens are responsible, they're not likely to admit it. And if it's the military, they are unlikely to reveal the technology.

The only way we'll know is…. I'm not sure how we'll ever know, unless the circlemakers really do document every glyph they make and perhaps explain how all the anomalies occur. Or unless the military conducts a public demonstration of that satellite.


- What happen when we die?

This is the big question. The one that has puzzled humankind since we have been able to contemplate such things.There is no hard, scientific evidence for life after death. But there is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that our spirits – our energy, our souls, or whatever it is that makes us who we are – survive death in some other plane of existence. There are the thousands upon thousands of ghost reports, recorded since the beginning of human history, the most compelling of which are the encounters with recently deceased loved ones who appear to relatives to assure that they are well and happy in their new lives.

Why we may never know. As compelling as we may find the reports of ghosts, near-death experience and reincarnation, we must admit that they are not proof. We can consider the sheer number and consistency of them as evidence, but they are not conclusive proof.

The only way we’ll know is…. When we die. And it’s inevitable – we’ll all find out sooner or later.

Peafowl

Green Peafowl
 Peafowl are two Asiatic species of flying bird in the genus Pavo of the pheasant family, Phasianidae, best known for the male's extravagant eye-spotted tail, which it displays as part of courtship. The male is called a peacock, the female a peahen, and the offspring called peachicks. The adult female peafowl is grey and/or brown. Peachicks can be between yellow and a tawny colour with darker brown patches. The term also embraces the Congo Peafowl, which is placed in a separate genus Afropavo.

Blue Peacock
A seven-year study of a population of free-ranging peacocks, conducted in Japan, came to the conclusion that female peahens are virtually indifferent towards the male display of plumage. A suggestion is that the plumage may have been a signal that was important earlier but has become obsolete. However, there was little plumage variance in the studied population. Other researchers have found the plumage to be important. Joseph Jordania recently suggested that the peacock's brilliantly colored and oversized tail (with plenty of eyespots), as well as its piercing, loud call, evolved through the forces of natural selection, not sexual selection, and were primarily designed to intimidate rivals and competitors, not to attract females.


The species are :


- Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) 

Indian Peacock
The Indian peafowl or Blue peafowl is a large and brightly coloured bird of the pheasant family native to South Asia, but introduced and semi-feral in many other parts of the world. The peacock (male) is predominantly blue with a fan-like crest of spatula-tipped wire-like feathers and is best known for the long train made up of elongated upper-tail covert feathers which bear colourful eyespots.

Indian Peahen
These stiff and elongated feathers are raised into a fan and quivered in a display during courtship. They are found mainly on the ground in open forest or cultivation where they forage for berries, grains but will also prey on snakes, lizards, and small rodents. Their loud calls make them easy to detect, and in forest areas, often indicate the presence of a predator such as a tiger. It is a bird that is celebrated in Indian and Greek mythology and is the national bird of India.



- Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus) 

Green Peacock
The Java Peafowl, is a large Galliform bird that is found in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. It is also known as the Green Peafowl, but this term should only be used to describe the nominate subspecies which is endemic to the island of Java. It is the closest relative of the Indian Peafowl or Blue Peafowl, which is mostly found on the Indian subcontinent.

Green Peahen
Green Peafowl are generally more silent than Indian Peafowl. The male of some subspecies, especially imperator, have a loud call of ki-wao, which is often repeated. The female has a loud aow-aa call with an emphasis on the first syllable. The male may also make a similar call. The males call from their roost sites at dawn and dusk. Green Peafowl are large birds, amongst the largest living galliforms in terms of overall size, though rather lighter-bodied than the Wild Turkey, and perhaps the longest extant, wild bird in total length.



- Congo Peafowl (Afropavo congensis) 

Congo Peacock
The Congo Peacock is a species of peafowl. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Afropavo. The male is a large bird of up to 64–70 cm in length. Its feathers are deep blue with a metallic green and violet tinge. It has bare red neck skin, grey feet, and a black tail with fourteen feathers. Its head is adorned with vertical white elongated hair-like feathers on its crown.

Congo Peahen
The female measures up to 60–63 cm and is generally a chestnut brown bird with a black abdomen, metallic green back, and a short chestnut brown crest. Both sexes resemble immature Asian Peafowl, with early stuffed birds being erroneously classified as such before they were officially discovered as a unique species

Thursday, August 16, 2012

Kangaroo

Kangaroo
A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning 'large foot'). In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family, especially those of the genus Macropus, red kangaroo, antilopine kangaroo, eastern grey kangaroo and western grey kangaroo. Kangaroos are endemic to the country of Australia. The smaller macropods are found in Australia and New Guinea. Kangaroos have large, powerful hind legs, large feet adapted for leaping, a long muscular tail for balance, and a small head. Like most marsupials, female kangaroos have a pouch called a marsupium in which joeys complete postnatal development.


There are 4 sub-species that commonly referred to as kangaroo,


Red Kangaroo
- Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

The red kangaroo is the largest of all kangaroos, the largest mammal native to Australia, and the largest surviving marsupial. It is found across mainland Australia, avoiding only the more fertile areas in the south, the east coast, and the northern rainforests. This species is a very large kangaroo with long, pointed ears and a squared-off muzzle. It has two forelimbs with small claws, two muscular hind-limbs, which are used for jumping, and a strong tail which is often used to create a tripod when standing upright.


Eastern Grey Kangaroo
- Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus)

The eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) is a marsupial found in southern and eastern Australia, with a population of several million. It is also known as the great grey kangaroo and the Forester kangaroo. Although a big eastern grey male typically masses around 66 kg. and stands almost 2 m tall, the scientific name, Macropus giganteus (gigantic large-foot), is misleading, as the red kangaroo of the semi-arid inland is, at 85 kg, larger.



Western Grey Kangaroo
- Western Grey Kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus)

The western grey kangaroo is one of the largest kangaroos in Australia. It weighs 28–54 kg and its length is 0.84 – 1.1 m with a 80–100 cm tail, standing approximately 1.3m tall. It exhibits sexual dimorphism with the male up to twice the size of female. It has thick, coarse fur with colour ranging from pale grey to brown; its throat, chest and belly have a paler colour. It feeds at night, mainly on grasses but also on leafy shrubs and low trees. It has a nickname stinker because mature males have a distinctive curry-like odour.


- Antilopine Kangaroo (Macropus antilopinus)


Antilopine kangaroo
The antilopine kangaroo, sometimes called the antilopine wallaroo or the antilopine wallaby. The antilopine kangaroo is one of few macropods to display sexual dimorphism, with the male being mostly a reddish colour above, and females being considerably greyer. It is one of the largest macropods, being only slightly smaller than the red kangaroo and the eastern grey kangaroo.

Eagle

Booted Eagle
Eagles are members of the bird family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera which are not necessarily closely related to each other. Most of the more than sixty species occur in Eurasia and Africa. Outside this area, just eleven species can be found - two species (the Bald Eagle and Golden Eagle) in the United States and Canada, nine species in Central America and South America, and three species in Australia.

South nicobar serpent eagle
Eagles are large, powerfully built birds of prey, with a heavy head and beak. Even the smallest eagles, like the Booted Eagle (Aquila pennata), have relatively longer and more evenly broad wings, and more direct, faster flight. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from some vultures. The smallest species called eagle is the South Nicobar Serpent Eagle (Spilornis klossi), at 450 g and 40 cm long. Like all birds of prey, eagles have very large hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong muscular legs, and powerful talons. The beak is typically heavier than most other birds of prey.


Some types of eagle are :


- Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

Bald Eagle
the bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. It is the national bird of the United States of America and appears on its Seal. This sea eagle has two known sub-species and forms a species pair with the White-tailed Eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. The Bald Eagle builds the largest nest of any North American bird, up to 4 meters deep, 2.5 meters wide, and 1.1 tons in weight.

Golden Eagle
- Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

The Golden Eagle is one of the best known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. Once widespread across the Holarctic, it has disappeared from many of the more heavily populated areas. Despite being extirpated from or uncommon in some its former range, the species is still fairly ubiquitous, being present in Eurasia, North America, and parts of Africa. The highest density of nesting Golden Eagles in the world lies in southern Alameda County, California. These birds are dark brown, with lighter golden-brown plumage on their heads and necks.

- Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja)
Harpy Eagle

The Harpy Eagle , sometimes known as the American Harpy Eagle, is a Neotropical species of eagle. It is the largest and most powerful raptor found in the Americas, and among the largest extant species of eagles in the world. It usually inhabits tropical lowland rainforests in the upper (emergent) canopy layer. Destruction of its natural habitat has seen it vanish from many parts of its former range, and it is almost extinct in Central America.

Crowned Solitary Eagle
- Crowned Solitary Eagle (Buteogallus coronatus)

The Crowned Solitary Eagle, typically known simply as the Crowned Eagle (leading to potential confusion with the African Stephanoaetus coronatus) is an endangered bird of prey from eastern and central South America. This is a large raptor with a length of 73–79 cm, a wingspan of 170–183 cm  and an average weight of 2.95 kg. Adults are almost entirely gray with a large occipital crest and a short, black-and-white-banded tail. The juvenile is gray-brown on the back and pale with gray-brown streaks on the head and underside.

- Black-chested Buzzard Eagle (Geranoaetus melanoleucus)

Black-chested Buzzard Eagle
The Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle is a bird of prey of the hawk and eagle family (Accipitridae). It lives in open regions of South America. This species is also known as the Black Buzzard-eagle, Grey Buzzard-eagle or analogously with "eagle" or "eagle-buzzard" replacing "buzzard-eagle", or as the Chilean Blue Eagle. It is sometimes placed in the genus Buteo.This is a huge eagle-like "buzzard" ("hawk" in American terminology). It has a total length of 60–80 cm and a wingspan of 149–200 cm. In the smaller G. m. australis subspecies, the weight is 1.7-3.2 kg, with no reported weights on the nominate subspecies.

Wednesday, August 15, 2012

top ten! World strongest predator!

talking about the strongest predator in the world? is it lion? is it tiger? or is it killer whale? well, the answer is right below, here are top ten world most strongest predator!

- No. 10 - Tarantula   .
tarantula
Tarantula spiders are among the most feared animals on the planet, and with good reason. Not only are they giants, as spiders go, but they are such stealthy and skilled hunters that no small animal that wanders within their grasp stands a chance at survival. The typical hunting modus operandi for tarantulas is to be patient. They lie in wait for a hapless passerby and then pounce without warning. Because of their size, they can reach 5 inches in length with a 12-inch leg span


Black mamba
- No. 9 - Black Mamba
The most fearsome animal in all Africa may well be the black mamba, the giant venomous snake found throughout the southeastern portion of the continent. It gets its name from the black skin on the inside of its mouth, which it displays just before it strikes. These animals are usually quite shy, but can be extremely aggressive when confronted. When they do attack, they tend to strike their victims repeatedly, releasing a lethal mix of neurotoxin and cardiotoxin. In the past, a bite from a black mamba was 100 percent fatal.


- No. 8 - Piranha
Piranha
Of all the fish in all the world's waters, the piranha may have the worst reputation. One look at this predator's slicing teeth and powerful jaws is enough to send chills up the spine. Known worldwide for its aggressive predatory feeding behavior, the piranha is found throughout the fresh waters of South America. They typically feed at dawn and dusk, lurking in the water and waiting for a small animal to pass by. Then, without warning, they attack and devour their prey with ferocity unparalleled in freshwater communities.


- No. 7 - Gray Wolf
Gray wolf
Most of the world's top predators are strict loners, preferring to rely on their own prowess to bring down prey. But to the gray wolf, the success of the hunt depends on cooperation among many. A typical wolf attack begins with members of the pack working together to encourage their victim to run. Not only is a lone animal easier to bring down than one that is in a herd, but a running animal poses less of a threat than one that is poised to fight. Then, the alpha male leads the chase, with his alpha female close behind. Once their victim stumbles and falls to the ground, the pack surrounds the animal and goes in for the kill.


Komodo Dragon
- No. 6 - Komodo Dragon
The largest of all lizards, the Komodo dragon is a mighty reptile that weighs up to 300 pounds and can reach a length of more than 10 feet. This animal takes our No. 6 spot for having multiple predatory advantages: speed, strength and the tenacity to bring down prey species twice its size. They also have a toxic bite; any victim that survives a Komodo dragon attack is likely to succumb to their wounds soon after. Komodos mainly hunt by ambushing their prey, but they are also fast runners and good swimmers. What's more, their incredible predatory skills are matched by an equally impressive ability to consume meat, up to half their own body weight in a single meal.


- No. 5 - Crocodile
Crocodile
There is nothing more frightening than a predator that lurks underwater for its prey, camouflaged by the surrounding environment, silently watching its victim and planning its kill. No. 5 in our countdown is the crocodile, a stealthy and extremely violent predator. With long, powerful jaws and teeth, the crocodile preys on a variety of animals. Some species, such as the Nile crocodile, can bring down very large prey such as zebras and buffalo. Its typical mode of attack is to wait at the water's edge for an animal to come to drink and then drag the hapless creature underwater and begin spinning around forcefully and repeatedly in order to tear off chunks of flesh.


Killer whale
- No. 4 - Killer Whale
As the name suggests, the killer whale is a deadly predator, combining remarkable skill with awesome physical power. Orcas have a number of ingenious techniques in their hunting arsenal, giving them one of the most diverse diets of all aquatic predators. For example, they are fond of knocking seals and penguins from ice floes in order to seize them as they fall into the water. They have also been known to intentionally beach themselves in order to reach seals onshore. Highly social animals, killer whales tend to live in pods made up of dozens of individuals working cooperatively to snag prey. Some have even been known to successfully prey on great white sharks.


- No. 3 - Grizzly Bear
Grizzly bear
The grizzly bear, also known as the brown bear, is probably the most feared animal in North America. This powerful predatory animal can stand 7 feet tall and weigh more than 800 pounds. Its strong limbs and huge paws can kill a man in a single swipe, and its powerful crushing jaws allow it to feed on a variety of foods, including large mammals. Grizzlies are also strong swimmers and fast runners. Coming face to face with this animal in the wild can be a harrowing experience, but the best response is to stand tall and resist the urge to run. These animals have been clocked at more than 40 miles per hour, and running away from them can trigger their chase response.


Lion
- No. 2 - Lion
This animal is known as the "king of the jungle," and for good reason. Lions hunt some of the largest prey on Earth, including buffalo and wildebeest. Part of their terrific success as predators comes from the fact that they cooperate in their kills. Lions live in social groups called prides, and all members work together in the hunt. Young lions learn their place in the pride early in life by play-fighting, which teaches them the skills they'll need for the hunt and determines what role they are most suited to perform. Lions' hunting success rate is only about one in five, but those odds are impressive when you consider that their prey species are massive creatures with plenty of fighting power of their own.


- No. 1 - Great White Shark
Great white shark
Any animal that has the misfortune of being preyed upon by the great white shark stands very little chance of surviving the attack. This animal is No. 1 on our countdown for its remarkable predatory abilities. With its streamlined body and strong jaws, the great white is a powerful animal: a fast swimmer and an agile aquatic acrobat able to leap high out of the water to surprise its prey. The great white shark also has multiple rows of sharp serrated teeth, each being replaced as soon as one is lost. In fact, a single shark can go through more than 50,000 teeth in its lifetime. Great whites typically begin their attacks with a single punishing bite.

Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Lion

Lion
The lion (Panthera leo) is one of the four big cats in the genus Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males exceeding 250 kg (550 lb) in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger. Lions live for 10–14 years in the wild, while in captivity they can live longer than 20 years. In the wild, males seldom live longer than 10 years, as injuries sustained from continual fighting with rival males greatly reduce their longevity. They typically inhabit savanna and grassland, although they may take to bush and forest. Lions are unusually social compared to other cats.

A pride of lions consists of related females and offspring and a small number of adult males. Groups of female lions typically hunt together, preying mostly on large ungulates. Lions are apex and keystone predators, although they scavenge as opportunity allows. Highly distinctive, the male lion is easily recognised by its mane, and its face is one of the most widely recognised animal symbols in human culture. Depictions have existed from the Upper Paleolithic period, with carvings and paintings from the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves, through virtually all ancient and medieval cultures where they once occurred. It has been extensively depicted in sculptures, in paintings, on national flags, and in contemporary films and literature.

Traditionally, 12 recent subspecies of lion were recognised, distinguished by mane appearance, size, and distribution. Because these characteristics are very insignificant and show a high individual variability, most of these forms were probably not true subspecies, especially as they were often based upon zoo material of unknown origin that may have had "striking, but abnormal" morphological characteristics. Today, only eight subspecies are usually accepted, although one of these, the Cape lion, formerly described as Panthera leo melanochaita, probably is invalid. Even the remaining seven subspecies might be too many.


some sub-species are :

Asiatic Lion
- Panthera leo persica, known as the Asiatic lion or South Asian, Persian, or Indian lion.Genetic evidence suggests its ancestors split from the ancestors of sub-Saharan African lions between 203 and 74 thousand years ago.

Barbary Lion
- P. l. leo, known as the Barbary lion, originally ranged from Morocco to Egypt. It is extinct in the wild due to excessive hunting, as the last wild Barbary lion was killed in Morocco in 1922.This was one of the largest of the lion subspecies

- P. l. senegalensis, known as the West African lion, is found in western Africa, from Senegal to the Central African Republic.

African Lion
- P. l. azandica, known as the northeast Congo Lion, is found in the northeastern parts of the Congo

- P. l. nubica, known as the East African or Masai lion is found in East Africa, from Ethiopia and Kenya to Tanzania and Mozambique; a local population is known as the Tsavo lion.

- P. l. bleyenberghi, known as the southwest African or Katanga lion, is found in southwestern Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Angola, Katanga (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

- P. l. krugeri, known as the southeast African or Transvaal lion, is found in the Transvaal region of southeastern Africa, including Kruger National Park.

Cape Lion
- P. l. melanochaita, known as the Cape lion, became extinct in the wild around 1860. Results of mitochondrial DNA research do not support its status as a distinct subspecies. The Cape lion probably was only the southernmost population of the extant P. l. krugeri.